The evolution of European and U.S. defense procurement and industrial relations was at the heart of the discussion. Current moves to consolidate the European defense procurement sector may have a lasting impact on transatlantic industrial cooperation, and procurement rules are under examination in the U.S. as well. François Gayet, Secretary General of the Aerospace and Defence Industries Association of Europe presented the European industry’s perspective. Robert Bell, Chairman of the NATO Industrial Advisory Group (NIAG) Study Group on Trans-Atlantic Defense Industrial Cooperation and Senior Vice President for European Business Development at SAIC, presented the results of NIAG’s report to NATO. Brig. Gen. Olivier-Pierre Jacquotte, Defense Cooperation Attaché at the Embassy of France, discussed France’s initiatives and plans for the French Presidency of the EU Council. Robert Kovac, Managing Director of the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, U.S. Department of State, addressed progress made so far and challenges ahead for the licensing process. Amb. Robert E. Hunter, Senior Advisor, Rand Corporation and Former U.S. Permanent Representative to NATO, moderated the discussion.